Leukemia is a cancer of the blood cells. The progenitor cells of normal white blood cells multiply in an uncontrolled way in the bone marrow. Leukemia can be divided into:
– Lymphoid or myeloid, depending on the cell type involved
* Acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL) arises from immature (T, B, Null) lymphocytes
* Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) arises from immature myeloid cells. It is also called Acute Non-Lymphoid Leukemia.
There are several subtypes of both Acute Lymphoid Leukemia and Acute Myeloid Leukemia.
– acute (rapidly progressing disease with the predominance of more immature or chronic cells, (slower progressing disease) with the presence of more mature cells.
* Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a disease of the lymphocytes (usually B).
* Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) belongs to a group of diseases called Chronic Myeloproliferative Diseases.
* Hairy Cell Leukemia (HCL), which originates from type B lymphocytes, derives its name from the cells involved that show protrusion that resembles hair under the microscope. It is a type of chronic leukemia.
Leukemia therapy has evolved in recent years.
It is based on chemotherapy, associated or not, based on the characteristics of the patient (age …) and the disease, with bone marrow transplantation. In recent years, research has led to the development of new and promising treatments (monoclonal antibodies, STI, cell therapies …) and new diagnostic tools (molecular biology, PET …).